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Perini, Jr. It has not been submitted for a degree at any other university. None of the work within this thesis has been published, or submitted for a previous degree.

In his time at Paramount, he negotiated new deals which redefined how stars earned revenue from their films. Yet little substantial study has been made of him or his persona.

Cruise came to prominence in the s, an epoch which redefined the terms of masculinity, moving away from a particular martial ideal following American defeat in Vietnam.

His persona addresses the consequent anxieties surrounding these significant social changes. Cruise appears to offers a challenge to the father, but in reality recedes from Oedipal threat.

Chapter One examines the nascent Cruise star persona and its development across his films. The chapter provides a historical overview and contextualisation of the persona.

Objectification through spectacle, which black characters and Cruise share in his films, indicate a symbolic shared powerlessness within the hegemony.

This relays the trauma of Oedipal struggle, which Cruise recedes from. This compromise is premised on youth and is threatened as Cruise ages, exaggerated by social changes within America.

Examiners Internal: Dr. This thesis offers an interpretation of why Tom Cruise can be considered one of the major stars of the late 20th century.

It begins by tracing his financial and popular success, locating his image within the context of s American culture.

This includes an analysis of the social preoccupations of the Reagan epoch and the manner in which his star sign reflected these concerns.

Following this, I lay out the core dynamic of his star image, which I set within the context of star theory originating with Richard Dyer, and through a complete chronological overview of his film career.

The thesis sets out to examine their particular psychoanalytic constellation and, finally, consider how these concerns link back to issues of masculine identity in modern western culture.

Cruise has consistently starred in higher earning films than his contemporaries, especially at his peak in the s and s. Prior to , his lifetime U.

By that date, he had starred in nine U. In Forbes magazine named Cruise the most powerful celebrity in the world. His position as producer and star on this series of films allowed him to negotiate an unheard of financial deal in recent history for a screen actor.

Most radically, Cruise negotiated for a revision of accounting practices, in which his percentage was based on total video receipts minus costs of manufacture and distribution.

Note: in general discussions of stardom in which the star could be male or female, I use both gendered pronouns.

However, in instances relating solely to Cruise, or in discussions pertaining to representations of masculinity, I use only the male pronoun.

People pay to see his films, many of which are overt star vehicles, because they want to see him. Yet he is never referenced by Bordwell, although the author writes at length about the film.

This thesis considers the place Cruise holds in modern culture and suggests that his screen persona can be understood as an expression of anxieties regarding masculinity in late 20th and early 21st century America.

It also considers how such gender concerns can be understood within a psychodynamic framework, shedding light on how his films express the unconscious preoccupations of the viewer.

Issues of national pride and military identity, capitalism and consumption, hegemonic masculinity and gender relations are all present in his films and persona.

This was in part due to the effects of deregulation, begun under President Carter but associated with Reagan. Although aiming to increase global market competitiveness, it stimulated an economic recession and proved crippling for heavy industry.

Although the recession under Reagan lasted for approximately 18 months, its effects upon these industries and the communities dependent upon them were pervasive.

Unemployment and the loss of heavy industry, attached to a working-class masculinity associated with 12 physical power, was a blow to masculine self-worth based on these values.

The decline of manufacturing and the growth of a service-based post-industrial economy, evident from the late s, began to pick up speed: by the s the production industries accounted for less than half of the jobs provided by service work.

Between the s and s, over 38 million service industry jobs were created in the USA Mohl, , p. This shift was matched by a changing work force that absorbed larger number of women and ethnic minorities of both sexes.

In addition to providing jobs based in areas such as government, education, medical care and retail, a large number of these roles were based in computer technology or information and data processing, which called for high-tech skills and training and barred low-skilled immigrants from many of these jobs Mohl, p.

He demonstrates the traits valued in the expanding service industries, such as verbal acuity and professional appearance.

He is aggressive and competitive, as a young entrepreneur Risky Business [Paul Brickman, ] or sports agent Jerry Maguire , thus reassuring audiences of his masculine credentials.

Although his is not a fighting body, nevertheless it is muscular and strong. In this film he plays a high-school football star, Stefen Djordjevic, who sees a sports scholarship to college as his escape route from a job at the Pennsylvania steel works which employs his father and brother.

Stefen conserves a measure of masculine physicality, even if it is channelled into sporting achievements rather than labour related ones.

Male self-image in early s America arguably became more attached to the earning potential of the middle classes, as the elite members of the generation born in the s and 60s ascended to high income jobs.

Cruise flirts with this identity in Risky Business, the film that establishes his career in He joins forces with Lana to set up a temporary brothel to service his male peers, thereby making a fortune.

Joel obtains a place at Princeton after a college interviewer turns up in the middle of a party and is impressed by his entrepreneurial drive.

The film reflects the preoccupations of s culture and articulates the nascent Cruise persona, based on the enjoyment of conspicuous consumption while often highly versed in technological know-how: these aspects coalesce in the figure of Maverick in Top Gun.

Top Gun was the number one film in US domestic rankings of and the film that made Cruise a star. Encapsulating aspects of the s in America, it is still used as a symbol of this historical era.

Top Gun expresses the third trend in America under the Reagan presidency: a renewed confidence in a military bruised by the defeat in the Vietnam War, a conflict that had elicited much anti-war sentiment in sections of the American public.

It is this confidence and exultation in technological progress that is represented in Top Gun. So successful was the film in invigorating the reputation of the U.

The film negotiates another aspect of the s workplace: the ascent of women to senior professional roles though not as widespread as Hollywood suggested in its representations at the time.

Nor has parity of pay been accomplished: US census data revealed that women in America still earn In Top Gun, Maverick discovers that the attractive blonde he tried to pick up at a bar is his new tutor, who holds a PhD in Astro-Physics and is older than him and taller.

This threat to male dominance is managed by creating a romance between the masculine nick-named Charlie and Maverick, reducing her authority.

Daniel Kaffee and senior officer Lt. JoAnne Galloway Demi Moore beyond friendship. Competition is resolved by a capitulation to restrictive gender roles and sexual mastery over women.

While women may be present in the work place, often in positions of seniority, Cruise manages to gain the sexual upper hand. His persona reflects social conservatism in so far as he never attacks the system, seeking to find acceptance within it.

Thus, in Risky Business he embraces an entrepreneurial business ethic in the place of an antiestablishment rhetoric. Maverick is haunted by the dishonour associated with his father, whose apparent desertion in Vietnam has blackened the family name.

This reflects a reinterpretation of the Vietnam War which reasserts the courage of the soldiers who fought, while blaming the American leadership which led them down.

Father-son relationships provide social and psychological challenges for the young man - both of which align with issues of patriarchal hegemony and can be understood within a classical Freudian framework.

Cruise does not challenge the figural fathers he finds himself up against. This signifies a lack of social rebellion but also an evasion of psychological challenge.

It is not patriarchy per se that is bad, only the corrupt leaders within it. His films reflect an idealisation of American identity, which Reaganism also encourages, while resolving anxieties around the place of modern man, especially in the workplace.

He favours the skills of the upwardly mobile professional classes in his verbal fluency, sales pitch and attention to the deal.

His preoccupation with image and consumer goods reflects the interests of young urban 16 professionals.

He is able to operate in a workplace increasingly dominated by women, while appearing to gain the upper hand.

Finally, he is able to oppose corrupt patriarchs, while supporting the existing order. Cruise is often opposed to the patriarch while not actually going through with the challenge and facing his wrath.

These make up the three pre-genital stages of psychosexual development identified by Freud. This is followed by a period of latency, between the age of six and adolescence, until the genital stage and adult sexuality Freud, S.

VII, pp. VII, p. As the little boy understands all females to be castrated males, the threat of castration is ever-present. XVI, p. Films that feature a marked struggle between a young and old man, especially one framed in filial terms, can be understood as expressing Oedipal tensions.

His films continually position him as a figural son mistreated by a destructive father; indeed, it is a central dynamic of his persona.

The psychosexual stages delineated by Freud, although they are passed through in sequence by the child, are never quite left behind; the child experiences a varying degree of difficulty in the process of mastery in each phase.

For example, failure to successfully overcome the Oedipus complex can be traced to early fixations at the oral or anal level S.

The thesis suggests that the Cruise persona exhibits a compromise solution to the Oedipus complex and yet simultaneously retains traces of early oral maternal fixations.

Given the importance of oral preoccupation in his star image, the work of Melanie Klein is an especially useful methodological tool.

The infant is preoccupied by fantasies of devouring the object in this case, the breast and of being devoured Klein, , pp. How do these concepts relate to an understanding of the Cruise persona?

The difficulties that the infant faces in separating from the mother as well as the homoerotic impulses displayed towards the father in the pre-genital sense all resonate with aspects of his star image.

The auto-erotic aspect of image points to fixation at the oral stage, as does his tendency towards narcissism. The strong tendency for his romantic opposite to be positioned as a more powerful figure than his character, in addition to pronounced homoerotic relationships with men all indicate a regression to this early psychosexual stage.

The classical Freudian and Kleinian conceptualisation of infant and child development are thus engaged to provide a psychodynamic interpretation of the Cruise persona.

Cruise Within Stardom The study begins with an examination of the career that Tom Cruise has enjoyed in Hollywood and his financial impact as an actor, while attempting to understand how these have been made possible by the economic conditions of the modern film industry.

A brief summary of each of his films, considering how the persona is utilised, altered or progressed in each work concludes this section.

Where a film has marked a distinct shift in his persona or otherwise indicated an important landmark in his career, such as his production of the Mission: Impossible series, greater detail is 19 given.

The mediation of significant personal events - such as his marriages - by the popular press is also discussed where it significantly affects his screen image.

Much as the persona of Tom Cruise reflects the sociological reality of s America, the career he has enjoyed as a star illustrates the economic conditions of modern day Hollywood.

Basinger argues that Cruise is the most successful example of this new type. Here his financial involvement with United Artists, in which the star invested part of his own wealth in the mini-studio in , is an act of symbolic importance.

Griffith, United Artists was created to secure greater financial control over their images and careers than the studios would concede.

Significant too was the timing of this move, following his professional humiliation at the non-renewal of his contract with Paramount Pictures, with whom he had worked on the Mission: Impossible series.

The decision made by Sumner Redstone, C. In May Cruise had appeared on the Oprah Winfrey show for the second time in his career, to promote the release of War of the Worlds.

The previous percentage deal, which Cruise had first 20 negotiated with Paramount, had been altered as DVDs became a larger part of the film revenue stream.

Faced with lower profits from Mission: Impossible III, Paramount demanded that Cruise reduce his cut of the royalties, which he refused to do.

He turned off all women, and a lot of men. And he was costing us a lot of money. Abrhams, ]. It was the best picture of the three, and it did the worst.

The argument that Cruise was costing the studio money, indicates that stars are responsible for the marketing and promotion of films, i.

It supports the assumption that the star is the most persuasive method of structuring and marketing film product. Richard deCordova traces the historical development of the film star system, revealing how the American film industry existed for a number of years before stars were deemed a way of selling films, as the novelty of the moving image waned.

However, only once named performers were acknowledged as a lure for audiences was their power established. The higher pay they received was based on the perceived power they had to increase admissions.

The notable difference between the categories of physical performer and picture personality is that the performer is not just recognizable but named; this shift takes place from about The performance of the actor is broken up into takes filmed out of sequence, which compensate for limited technical ability p.

The film actor is reliant on the technical apparatus to produce his or her performance. King goes on to argue that actors seeking stardom will conduct themselves in the public eye as if there is an inherent connection between their person and their image.

Richard Dyer highlights this private-public dichotomy as one of the defining features of film stardom. The question of what the star persona constitutes, its relation to particular film representations but also its dependence upon extra-textual sites of meaning, makes up the second area of star scholarship.

The significance of film stars as a social phenomenon is argued by theorist Edgar Morin in Les Stars , trans.

Morin is the first scholar to approach the star from a psychological and social standpoint. He considers stars in terms of their personal meaning to spectators and what they signify in terms of archetypes.

Dyer raises questions about how stars figure in representation and the meaning of the characters they depict on screen, emphasizing how they function ideologically.

In any society, there will be a number of different ideologies generated by collective groups and there will exist contradictions both between these various ideologies and within the ideologies themselves.

Its efforts are taken up in displacing its own contradictions and those that arise from alternative ideologies, an effort in which the mass medium of Hollywood cinema engages.

Dyer poses a number of questions in relation to stars and ideology. What meanings do images of stardom in general and of particular stars create?

How do star images interact with other aspects of the film, including character and performance p. Individual stars represent the contradictions of hegemonic ideology, which may occasion a significant political struggle.

Dyer briefly discusses James Dean as an example of the rebel hero whose roles recuperate the rebellion he appears to promote p. His revolt against the family in East of Eden Elia Kazan, and Rebel Without a Cause Nicholas Ray, is against the failures of the particular family he finds himself in rather than the institution per se p.

The patriarch is one who is corrupt or in other ways harmful: Cruise resists this figure rather than patriarchy as a relation of power.

The above models of examining cinema stardom threaten to become outmoded as the concept of celebrity alters.

There has been a broadening of the notion of stardom, with the term celebrity changing the definition of what it is to be famous, in what way, and to what end.

One line of thought suggests that special effects are now the stars of films Barker, , p. Avatar James Cameron, is one such example, relying on animated characters, special effects and 3D exhibition as the basis of its marketing campaign.

Hollywood stardom must now negotiate its definition in the light of developing media forms. She indicates that there are three ways of considering stars in the modern cultural arena: star-as-celebrity, star-as-professional and star-as-performer , p.

The celebrity is a 25 public entity whose life is documented in the public press and may come from a variety of popular entertainment backgrounds such as film, sports or music, or from royalty, business or elsewhere.

Cruise is facing the pressures that all film stars are subject to in the changes to production and marketing of film product.

The preceding period had been effected by the post World War II recession, the suburbanisation of the American populace and the coming of television, all of which had a negative impact on film revenues Schatz, , p.

Further profits were raised from sequels, merchandising, even theme park rides and other tie-ins. Wyatt also notes the product placement of Ray-Ban Aviators in the film and alludes to the rumoured sales rise in leather jackets following its release though he does not provide any data for either assertion p.

It was also the first video release to include commercial advertising, one for Pepsi Cola featuring pilots with similar names to characters in the film, participating in aviator stunts Thompson, , p.

Home video was a huge financial success for the entertainment industries: between and profits rose from nearly nil to become more lucrative than the theatrical distribution of films.

The secondary markets were dependent on blockbuster hits whose success was founded on large scale advertising campaigns; domestic theatrical success remained important for the markets of home video and cable TV.

One method of stabilising this high-risk high-investment film-making was through casting. The success of Avatar, the highest grossing film of all time at this moment, is the most profound example of a box office increasingly driven by products marketed on technological innovation.

In addition to these changes in Hollywood economics, celebrity itself is changing. A film star must now work harder to remain in the public eye.

An overview of this kind also helps place Cruise within industrial, economic and historical contexts, locating him within a broader discourse of celebrity studies.

This is especially useful for his later career, which has been increasingly subjected to the demands and iterations of new digital media forms.

Each film is briefly considered for the manner in which it has progressed, contradicted or reinforced existing persona traits and reshaped his image, as well as negotiating extra-filmic discourse, such as newspaper or internet material especially true in his later career.

In particular, I engage with certain seminal writings on stars, such as the work of Richard Dyer. His account of the way in which star images embody and apparently resolve certain ideological contradictions Dyer, , p.

These paradoxes are equally valid for considering Cruise from a social perspective, such as his positioning as a post-Vietnam epoch martial figure, and within a psychoanalytic framework.

This also includes an evaluation of other writings that explore the Cruise persona. The work of P. This has provided a useful model for my own historical study of Cruise which forms the first chapter.

A homoerotic, spectacular, aspect of his star sign is in the ascension in the early part of his career, until around From this period onwards, the troubled father-son dynamic that was always a feature of his film narratives takes on a darker, more menacing, aspect.

His eroticised body now becomes physically threatened by the castrating patriarch. Section three looks in further depth at the father-son relationships that characterize his films, and their destructive aspect in the latter part of his filmography.

The chapter is broadly divided into two halves. Employing methodology that encompasses a queer theoretical approach to gender, I apply the perspectives of Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Judith Butler to my analysis of the Cruise persona.

His anxious performances solicit the attention of a male audience at the expense of heterosexual romance. This indicates a fundamental instability at the core of idealized gender norms.

His relationships with women are thus marginalised in relation to these homoerotic bonds with male peers and a typically troubled dynamic with his figural father.

These feelings oscillate with his fear of castration by the father as punishment for expressing sexual interest in 32 his mother.

It presents a social interpretation of the Cruise figure who is constrained by formidable hegemonic forces, through the prism of racial difference.

It offers an analysis of the films Jerry Maguire and Collateral Michael Mann, in terms of their preoccupation with and - at least partial - endorsement of a capitalist economic model.

Stereotypical depictions of black men situate African-American masculinity specifically, and non-white masculinity more generally, as physically and emotionally excessive.

The films suggest that, just like Cruise, these working class men can aspire to the American dream though Collateral is ambiguous.

Both resemble Cruise and the films promote a solution to the difficulties of capitalism in the way that his characters do more broadly.

In Jerry Maguire the free market ethic of professional sport has stolen the pleasure from the game and care from the players themselves.

The previously cynical Maguire Tom Cruise decides sports agents should develop emotional ties with their clients and forms a close friendship with Tidwell.

The racial difference between Tidwell and Maguire 33 distracts us from the homoerotic longing experienced by the pair, a device noted by writers Yvonne Tasker and Cynthia Fuchs in relation to Lethal Weapon.

The bond between the men in both films is conflicted by the presence of a profit motive. In Collateral, taxi driver Max is held hostage by professional killer Vincent Tom Cruise and instructed to drive him across Los Angeles as he carries out his hits.

The business dynamic between Rod Tidwell and Maguire is more complicated: mutual affection appears to circumvent the worst excesses of capitalism, but the relationship is undermined by the profit model.

The only reliable bond a man can rely on, so the logic of Jerry Maguire goes, is that between husband and wife: the closeness of the two men is undermined by their marriages.

The message is that heterosexual romantic bonds will out. This romantic pairing is fundamentally dishonest, using the visual matching of race to elide the class difference between a criminal attorney and a taxi driver.

Yet both films engage in a de facto defence of capitalist society, privileging masculine bonds as a way of softening a harsh market ethic, and then side-lining these by the primacy of the heterosexual romantic couple.

The reasons for this will be explored in the third section of the thesis. In his earlier films, his body is offered up as spectacle; he is a self-pleasuring narcissist.

This continues up until the end of the s, when he is still presented as the object of an erotic look in films such as Magnolia.

However, as he ages his body is increasingly covered up. He still provides moments of spectacle, in films such as Minority Report and The Last Samurai, but these 34 are demonstrations of physical and technological skill, as opposed to a presentation of a youthful, erotic physique.

Instead, his body is more likely to suffer the attacks of a castrating patriarch and be subjected to bodily damage. Chapter four examines the films of Cruise that figure a persecuting patriarch, taking the film Minority Report as a case study.

It also relates this psychodynamic reading of the star back to the marginal social position that the Cruise figure so often occupies; thus there continues to be a dialogue between the psychoanalytic and social reading of his star sign.

XVIII, p. This tension is resolved by an apparent challenge to the father that is ultimately an evasion.

This compromise formation plays out repeatedly. The American dream resolves the wish to be wealthy with the reality that most people are not and will not become rich, thus relieving psychic distress at the inequity of society and providing a form of social control for the ruling classes.

When the evasive persona of Cruise is extended beyond the family, his social figuration is revealed as a powerless individual at the mercy of hegemonic forces.

Although he has no possibility of asserting himself, he nevertheless projects the appearance of social mobility. In reality, under attack, he often requires rescuing - and by a woman.

Minority Report includes a case of child abduction and imputed sexual abuse which makes manifest the trauma of normal psychosexual development.

This incorporation of identification with the mother allows for a same-sex object choice, thus the male child experiences an eroticised bond towards the father.

Freud interprets the totem as symbolic of the father, who may not be killed but who nevertheless is viewed with ambivalence by the child S.

XIII, p. XIII, , p. Thus, male violence can be read psychoanalytically and socially. The aggression underpinning inter-generational male bonds is reflected on a social level by a sacrifice, most often through war, to expel hostility.

Successful evasion of bodily harm is complicated in his more recent films. The compromise formation of evading paternal threat, concealed if played by a youthful man, becomes unsettling when enacted by an older one.

Valkyrie is also defined by its foregrounding of intense male-male bonds. In previous films such as Jerry Maguire or The Last Samurai he substitutes his buddy relationship with heterosexual union.

In Valkyrie he only gives up his homoerotic bond at the point of death; the father is just too dominant and cannot be overcome. Valkyrie is no exception.

It brings together the homoerotic bonds typical of his films and concomitant lack of heterosexual interest exaggerated by the all male environment with the terrifying patriarch from whom he is unable to escape.

He is figuratively castrated by the patriarch, sacrificed to expel Oedipal aggression and dispel the threat which the son poses to the father.

Even at this late date, Cruise is unable to overcome the patriarch and accede to a place of power. The compromise Cruise presents in the earlier part of his career is founded upon, in psychoanalytic terms, evading the threat of castration while appearing to challenge the father.

In social terms, he appears to rebel against authority, while being incorporated into the social order. For the compromise to work, Cruise must be a young man.

His popular screen image is threatened by the limited longevity of the psychodynamic and social range of the persona.

His physical aging appears to force a progression to the phallic stage in which Oedipal challenge, and concomitant castration anxiety, become unavoidable.

Source for all U. Nielsen EDI Database. See T. However, it should be noted that War of the Worlds opened on July 4th weekend , immediately after the appearances on Oprah and the Today show.

This cross-promotion of the film product also relates to the nascent video market and newlyemerging music video form. For further studies of these forms see Schatz [ibid] and A.

This description encapsulates the double function of the mask which acts as a projection for an audience and its juxtaposition to a private authentic core.

Dyer considers how stars figure in representation and the meaning of the characters they depict on screen. This use of the star persona may be problematic as a film cannot always guarantee that the aspects of the image highlighted are those which most appeal to the audience , p.

However, Dyer concludes that this can only happen when the audience is unaware of the star image or the film is having a joke at the expense of the persona.

Alternatively, the star image dominates and the character is brought into line with it. This is rare for Cruise.

Even films such as Magnolia P. One example of a potentially problematic fit is Tropic Thunder Ben Stiller, in which Cruise plays Les Grossman, an abusive film producer.

However, this is a deliberate inversion of his persona, which is played for comic effect. Much of this is created by members of the public and is beyond the control of the star and those employed to maintain his or her image.

The development of new media has, P. In this changing arena, film is losing its place at the centre of the cultural commodities market and with it, its prestige.

It is an uncertain time to be a Hollywood film star - Marshall notes that as film loses its hegemonic cultural position there is a concomitant diminishment of the significance of its stars.

He may have suffered more than most stars from 42 the user-driven product that the internet has enabled: doctored footage of his appearance on the Oprah Winfrey Show was uploaded to YouTube, as were clips from the Matt Lauer Show in which Cruise debated the merits of anti-depressants with his host.

The footage had been filmed in and was already familiar to journalistic and anti-Scientology circles. The impact of previously aired footage has the potential to alter with its recirculation on-line.

In this case, the clips were circulated on YouTube and reached a much larger audience. In such instances, the original producers and performers have little control over their later manifestations though footage may be removed from a site such as YouTube in cases of copyright infringement.

Yet each permutation filters into the persona. Entry No. Another possibility is that financial failure has resulted from the nature of the projects that Cruise has chosen to star in.

These films may not facilitate the vulnerable persona demonstrated in films such as Jerry Maguire and Magnolia and proved so popular with audiences.

Knight exhibits the mania typical of the Cruise persona without displaying the vulnerability underlying it. The resulting character is inexplicable and even disturbing.

He also suggests that such films might better reflect the depressed mood and resignation of the American public in what is predicted to be the longest recession since World War II2.

Montgomery Clift, a star to whom ready comparisons can be drawn with Cruise, was already dead. Bogart and Cooper are more adult than Cruise, who as Thomson points out, was in set to appear in the action film Mission: Impossible IV.

Cruise plays a boyish man struggling in an adult world, a position that is becoming untenable.

Cruise is the white-collar working man, upwardly aspiring to the middle class and indulging in conspicuous consumption.

He also presents a solution to psychodynamic dilemmas. For this reason a psychodynamic methodology has been employed in this study of his persona.

His persona is that of a young man on the cusp of adulthood. He acts as if masculinity has already been achieved, but this remains role-play, a trying on of parts; he is often a trainee in the world he inhabits, never at the top of his field.

He sends out conflicting signals: he challenges authority but does not overthrow it. He rebels but does not lead. He mixes with men but often seems uneasy in their company.

He is poised between childhood carelessness and adult responsibility. He is pretty feminine yet physically active masculine , often depicted running and climbing, yet rarely aggressive.

When he is aggressive, it comes out in a rage against the father, a moment of suppressed anger unleashed.

At times his actions endanger women, and his films feature abused women. This repeated plotting suggests an unconscious misogyny on the part of the Cruise persona in these films.

Quite the opposite, it is Cruise who usually inhabits this exhibitionist space and solicits the male gaze himself.

I will show in the final section of the thesis that this auto-erotic presentation lends itself to a psychodynamic interpretation.

I engage with a classical Freudian and Kleinian conceptualisation of infant and child development in order to understand the figuration of Cruise in this way.

In addition, Cruise often plays a supplicant role with older men. He is frequently the victim of a scrutinising, sadistic communal male gaze, and though he appears to evade physical dispute with other men, the threat of violence or mistreatment is never far away.

Psychodynamically, this can be understood as an expression of the castration anxiety that the young boy feels towards his father, in fear of retaliation for his wish to kill the patriarch and take possession of his mother.

This physical threat becomes more overt as he ages, indicating a change to his aging persona, with films such as Minority Report, Mission: Impossible III J.

He typically attempts to talk his way out of conflict, and failing that, he tries to flee; he evades conflict with the father figure.

And more dangers lie ahead in November as nuclear rod bundles will be extracted from reactor 4, an extremely delicate operation. Stauffenberg is surrounded by a group click collaborators who, relative to him, appear elderly and so underscore his youth although he is in his forties. But that journey becomes far more difficult kriegsbeute the Giants trot off the Click at this page Stadium field in a hole. The Jewish state then annexed East Jerusalem as part of its capital in a move never recognized internationally. If clothes make yes amy davidson consider man, then identity is a performance. There is a distinct anti-technology bias to this narrative. Mathew

Thus, in Risky Business he embraces an entrepreneurial business ethic in the place of an antiestablishment rhetoric.

Maverick is haunted by the dishonour associated with his father, whose apparent desertion in Vietnam has blackened the family name.

This reflects a reinterpretation of the Vietnam War which reasserts the courage of the soldiers who fought, while blaming the American leadership which led them down.

Father-son relationships provide social and psychological challenges for the young man - both of which align with issues of patriarchal hegemony and can be understood within a classical Freudian framework.

Cruise does not challenge the figural fathers he finds himself up against. This signifies a lack of social rebellion but also an evasion of psychological challenge.

It is not patriarchy per se that is bad, only the corrupt leaders within it. His films reflect an idealisation of American identity, which Reaganism also encourages, while resolving anxieties around the place of modern man, especially in the workplace.

He favours the skills of the upwardly mobile professional classes in his verbal fluency, sales pitch and attention to the deal.

His preoccupation with image and consumer goods reflects the interests of young urban 16 professionals. He is able to operate in a workplace increasingly dominated by women, while appearing to gain the upper hand.

Finally, he is able to oppose corrupt patriarchs, while supporting the existing order. Cruise is often opposed to the patriarch while not actually going through with the challenge and facing his wrath.

These make up the three pre-genital stages of psychosexual development identified by Freud. This is followed by a period of latency, between the age of six and adolescence, until the genital stage and adult sexuality Freud, S.

VII, pp. VII, p. As the little boy understands all females to be castrated males, the threat of castration is ever-present.

XVI, p. Films that feature a marked struggle between a young and old man, especially one framed in filial terms, can be understood as expressing Oedipal tensions.

His films continually position him as a figural son mistreated by a destructive father; indeed, it is a central dynamic of his persona.

The psychosexual stages delineated by Freud, although they are passed through in sequence by the child, are never quite left behind; the child experiences a varying degree of difficulty in the process of mastery in each phase.

For example, failure to successfully overcome the Oedipus complex can be traced to early fixations at the oral or anal level S. The thesis suggests that the Cruise persona exhibits a compromise solution to the Oedipus complex and yet simultaneously retains traces of early oral maternal fixations.

Given the importance of oral preoccupation in his star image, the work of Melanie Klein is an especially useful methodological tool. The infant is preoccupied by fantasies of devouring the object in this case, the breast and of being devoured Klein, , pp.

How do these concepts relate to an understanding of the Cruise persona? The difficulties that the infant faces in separating from the mother as well as the homoerotic impulses displayed towards the father in the pre-genital sense all resonate with aspects of his star image.

The auto-erotic aspect of image points to fixation at the oral stage, as does his tendency towards narcissism. The strong tendency for his romantic opposite to be positioned as a more powerful figure than his character, in addition to pronounced homoerotic relationships with men all indicate a regression to this early psychosexual stage.

The classical Freudian and Kleinian conceptualisation of infant and child development are thus engaged to provide a psychodynamic interpretation of the Cruise persona.

Cruise Within Stardom The study begins with an examination of the career that Tom Cruise has enjoyed in Hollywood and his financial impact as an actor, while attempting to understand how these have been made possible by the economic conditions of the modern film industry.

A brief summary of each of his films, considering how the persona is utilised, altered or progressed in each work concludes this section.

Where a film has marked a distinct shift in his persona or otherwise indicated an important landmark in his career, such as his production of the Mission: Impossible series, greater detail is 19 given.

The mediation of significant personal events - such as his marriages - by the popular press is also discussed where it significantly affects his screen image.

Much as the persona of Tom Cruise reflects the sociological reality of s America, the career he has enjoyed as a star illustrates the economic conditions of modern day Hollywood.

Basinger argues that Cruise is the most successful example of this new type. Here his financial involvement with United Artists, in which the star invested part of his own wealth in the mini-studio in , is an act of symbolic importance.

Griffith, United Artists was created to secure greater financial control over their images and careers than the studios would concede.

Significant too was the timing of this move, following his professional humiliation at the non-renewal of his contract with Paramount Pictures, with whom he had worked on the Mission: Impossible series.

The decision made by Sumner Redstone, C. In May Cruise had appeared on the Oprah Winfrey show for the second time in his career, to promote the release of War of the Worlds.

The previous percentage deal, which Cruise had first 20 negotiated with Paramount, had been altered as DVDs became a larger part of the film revenue stream.

Faced with lower profits from Mission: Impossible III, Paramount demanded that Cruise reduce his cut of the royalties, which he refused to do.

He turned off all women, and a lot of men. And he was costing us a lot of money. Abrhams, ]. It was the best picture of the three, and it did the worst.

The argument that Cruise was costing the studio money, indicates that stars are responsible for the marketing and promotion of films, i. It supports the assumption that the star is the most persuasive method of structuring and marketing film product.

Richard deCordova traces the historical development of the film star system, revealing how the American film industry existed for a number of years before stars were deemed a way of selling films, as the novelty of the moving image waned.

However, only once named performers were acknowledged as a lure for audiences was their power established. The higher pay they received was based on the perceived power they had to increase admissions.

The notable difference between the categories of physical performer and picture personality is that the performer is not just recognizable but named; this shift takes place from about The performance of the actor is broken up into takes filmed out of sequence, which compensate for limited technical ability p.

The film actor is reliant on the technical apparatus to produce his or her performance. King goes on to argue that actors seeking stardom will conduct themselves in the public eye as if there is an inherent connection between their person and their image.

Richard Dyer highlights this private-public dichotomy as one of the defining features of film stardom. The question of what the star persona constitutes, its relation to particular film representations but also its dependence upon extra-textual sites of meaning, makes up the second area of star scholarship.

The significance of film stars as a social phenomenon is argued by theorist Edgar Morin in Les Stars , trans.

Morin is the first scholar to approach the star from a psychological and social standpoint. He considers stars in terms of their personal meaning to spectators and what they signify in terms of archetypes.

Dyer raises questions about how stars figure in representation and the meaning of the characters they depict on screen, emphasizing how they function ideologically.

In any society, there will be a number of different ideologies generated by collective groups and there will exist contradictions both between these various ideologies and within the ideologies themselves.

Its efforts are taken up in displacing its own contradictions and those that arise from alternative ideologies, an effort in which the mass medium of Hollywood cinema engages.

Dyer poses a number of questions in relation to stars and ideology. What meanings do images of stardom in general and of particular stars create?

How do star images interact with other aspects of the film, including character and performance p. Individual stars represent the contradictions of hegemonic ideology, which may occasion a significant political struggle.

Dyer briefly discusses James Dean as an example of the rebel hero whose roles recuperate the rebellion he appears to promote p.

His revolt against the family in East of Eden Elia Kazan, and Rebel Without a Cause Nicholas Ray, is against the failures of the particular family he finds himself in rather than the institution per se p.

The patriarch is one who is corrupt or in other ways harmful: Cruise resists this figure rather than patriarchy as a relation of power.

The above models of examining cinema stardom threaten to become outmoded as the concept of celebrity alters.

There has been a broadening of the notion of stardom, with the term celebrity changing the definition of what it is to be famous, in what way, and to what end.

One line of thought suggests that special effects are now the stars of films Barker, , p. Avatar James Cameron, is one such example, relying on animated characters, special effects and 3D exhibition as the basis of its marketing campaign.

Hollywood stardom must now negotiate its definition in the light of developing media forms. She indicates that there are three ways of considering stars in the modern cultural arena: star-as-celebrity, star-as-professional and star-as-performer , p.

The celebrity is a 25 public entity whose life is documented in the public press and may come from a variety of popular entertainment backgrounds such as film, sports or music, or from royalty, business or elsewhere.

Cruise is facing the pressures that all film stars are subject to in the changes to production and marketing of film product.

The preceding period had been effected by the post World War II recession, the suburbanisation of the American populace and the coming of television, all of which had a negative impact on film revenues Schatz, , p.

Further profits were raised from sequels, merchandising, even theme park rides and other tie-ins. Wyatt also notes the product placement of Ray-Ban Aviators in the film and alludes to the rumoured sales rise in leather jackets following its release though he does not provide any data for either assertion p.

It was also the first video release to include commercial advertising, one for Pepsi Cola featuring pilots with similar names to characters in the film, participating in aviator stunts Thompson, , p.

Home video was a huge financial success for the entertainment industries: between and profits rose from nearly nil to become more lucrative than the theatrical distribution of films.

The secondary markets were dependent on blockbuster hits whose success was founded on large scale advertising campaigns; domestic theatrical success remained important for the markets of home video and cable TV.

One method of stabilising this high-risk high-investment film-making was through casting. The success of Avatar, the highest grossing film of all time at this moment, is the most profound example of a box office increasingly driven by products marketed on technological innovation.

In addition to these changes in Hollywood economics, celebrity itself is changing. A film star must now work harder to remain in the public eye.

An overview of this kind also helps place Cruise within industrial, economic and historical contexts, locating him within a broader discourse of celebrity studies.

This is especially useful for his later career, which has been increasingly subjected to the demands and iterations of new digital media forms.

Each film is briefly considered for the manner in which it has progressed, contradicted or reinforced existing persona traits and reshaped his image, as well as negotiating extra-filmic discourse, such as newspaper or internet material especially true in his later career.

In particular, I engage with certain seminal writings on stars, such as the work of Richard Dyer. His account of the way in which star images embody and apparently resolve certain ideological contradictions Dyer, , p.

These paradoxes are equally valid for considering Cruise from a social perspective, such as his positioning as a post-Vietnam epoch martial figure, and within a psychoanalytic framework.

This also includes an evaluation of other writings that explore the Cruise persona. The work of P. This has provided a useful model for my own historical study of Cruise which forms the first chapter.

A homoerotic, spectacular, aspect of his star sign is in the ascension in the early part of his career, until around From this period onwards, the troubled father-son dynamic that was always a feature of his film narratives takes on a darker, more menacing, aspect.

His eroticised body now becomes physically threatened by the castrating patriarch. Section three looks in further depth at the father-son relationships that characterize his films, and their destructive aspect in the latter part of his filmography.

The chapter is broadly divided into two halves. Employing methodology that encompasses a queer theoretical approach to gender, I apply the perspectives of Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Judith Butler to my analysis of the Cruise persona.

His anxious performances solicit the attention of a male audience at the expense of heterosexual romance.

This indicates a fundamental instability at the core of idealized gender norms. His relationships with women are thus marginalised in relation to these homoerotic bonds with male peers and a typically troubled dynamic with his figural father.

These feelings oscillate with his fear of castration by the father as punishment for expressing sexual interest in 32 his mother.

It presents a social interpretation of the Cruise figure who is constrained by formidable hegemonic forces, through the prism of racial difference.

It offers an analysis of the films Jerry Maguire and Collateral Michael Mann, in terms of their preoccupation with and - at least partial - endorsement of a capitalist economic model.

Stereotypical depictions of black men situate African-American masculinity specifically, and non-white masculinity more generally, as physically and emotionally excessive.

The films suggest that, just like Cruise, these working class men can aspire to the American dream though Collateral is ambiguous.

Both resemble Cruise and the films promote a solution to the difficulties of capitalism in the way that his characters do more broadly.

In Jerry Maguire the free market ethic of professional sport has stolen the pleasure from the game and care from the players themselves.

The previously cynical Maguire Tom Cruise decides sports agents should develop emotional ties with their clients and forms a close friendship with Tidwell.

The racial difference between Tidwell and Maguire 33 distracts us from the homoerotic longing experienced by the pair, a device noted by writers Yvonne Tasker and Cynthia Fuchs in relation to Lethal Weapon.

The bond between the men in both films is conflicted by the presence of a profit motive. In Collateral, taxi driver Max is held hostage by professional killer Vincent Tom Cruise and instructed to drive him across Los Angeles as he carries out his hits.

The business dynamic between Rod Tidwell and Maguire is more complicated: mutual affection appears to circumvent the worst excesses of capitalism, but the relationship is undermined by the profit model.

The only reliable bond a man can rely on, so the logic of Jerry Maguire goes, is that between husband and wife: the closeness of the two men is undermined by their marriages.

The message is that heterosexual romantic bonds will out. This romantic pairing is fundamentally dishonest, using the visual matching of race to elide the class difference between a criminal attorney and a taxi driver.

Yet both films engage in a de facto defence of capitalist society, privileging masculine bonds as a way of softening a harsh market ethic, and then side-lining these by the primacy of the heterosexual romantic couple.

The reasons for this will be explored in the third section of the thesis. In his earlier films, his body is offered up as spectacle; he is a self-pleasuring narcissist.

This continues up until the end of the s, when he is still presented as the object of an erotic look in films such as Magnolia.

However, as he ages his body is increasingly covered up. He still provides moments of spectacle, in films such as Minority Report and The Last Samurai, but these 34 are demonstrations of physical and technological skill, as opposed to a presentation of a youthful, erotic physique.

Instead, his body is more likely to suffer the attacks of a castrating patriarch and be subjected to bodily damage.

Chapter four examines the films of Cruise that figure a persecuting patriarch, taking the film Minority Report as a case study. It also relates this psychodynamic reading of the star back to the marginal social position that the Cruise figure so often occupies; thus there continues to be a dialogue between the psychoanalytic and social reading of his star sign.

XVIII, p. This tension is resolved by an apparent challenge to the father that is ultimately an evasion. This compromise formation plays out repeatedly.

The American dream resolves the wish to be wealthy with the reality that most people are not and will not become rich, thus relieving psychic distress at the inequity of society and providing a form of social control for the ruling classes.

When the evasive persona of Cruise is extended beyond the family, his social figuration is revealed as a powerless individual at the mercy of hegemonic forces.

Although he has no possibility of asserting himself, he nevertheless projects the appearance of social mobility.

In reality, under attack, he often requires rescuing - and by a woman. Minority Report includes a case of child abduction and imputed sexual abuse which makes manifest the trauma of normal psychosexual development.

This incorporation of identification with the mother allows for a same-sex object choice, thus the male child experiences an eroticised bond towards the father.

Freud interprets the totem as symbolic of the father, who may not be killed but who nevertheless is viewed with ambivalence by the child S.

XIII, p. XIII, , p. Thus, male violence can be read psychoanalytically and socially. The aggression underpinning inter-generational male bonds is reflected on a social level by a sacrifice, most often through war, to expel hostility.

Successful evasion of bodily harm is complicated in his more recent films. The compromise formation of evading paternal threat, concealed if played by a youthful man, becomes unsettling when enacted by an older one.

Valkyrie is also defined by its foregrounding of intense male-male bonds. In previous films such as Jerry Maguire or The Last Samurai he substitutes his buddy relationship with heterosexual union.

In Valkyrie he only gives up his homoerotic bond at the point of death; the father is just too dominant and cannot be overcome.

Valkyrie is no exception. It brings together the homoerotic bonds typical of his films and concomitant lack of heterosexual interest exaggerated by the all male environment with the terrifying patriarch from whom he is unable to escape.

He is figuratively castrated by the patriarch, sacrificed to expel Oedipal aggression and dispel the threat which the son poses to the father.

Even at this late date, Cruise is unable to overcome the patriarch and accede to a place of power. The compromise Cruise presents in the earlier part of his career is founded upon, in psychoanalytic terms, evading the threat of castration while appearing to challenge the father.

In social terms, he appears to rebel against authority, while being incorporated into the social order. For the compromise to work, Cruise must be a young man.

His popular screen image is threatened by the limited longevity of the psychodynamic and social range of the persona. His physical aging appears to force a progression to the phallic stage in which Oedipal challenge, and concomitant castration anxiety, become unavoidable.

Source for all U. Nielsen EDI Database. See T. However, it should be noted that War of the Worlds opened on July 4th weekend , immediately after the appearances on Oprah and the Today show.

This cross-promotion of the film product also relates to the nascent video market and newlyemerging music video form. For further studies of these forms see Schatz [ibid] and A.

This description encapsulates the double function of the mask which acts as a projection for an audience and its juxtaposition to a private authentic core.

Dyer considers how stars figure in representation and the meaning of the characters they depict on screen. This use of the star persona may be problematic as a film cannot always guarantee that the aspects of the image highlighted are those which most appeal to the audience , p.

However, Dyer concludes that this can only happen when the audience is unaware of the star image or the film is having a joke at the expense of the persona.

Alternatively, the star image dominates and the character is brought into line with it. This is rare for Cruise. Even films such as Magnolia P.

One example of a potentially problematic fit is Tropic Thunder Ben Stiller, in which Cruise plays Les Grossman, an abusive film producer.

However, this is a deliberate inversion of his persona, which is played for comic effect. Much of this is created by members of the public and is beyond the control of the star and those employed to maintain his or her image.

The development of new media has, P. In this changing arena, film is losing its place at the centre of the cultural commodities market and with it, its prestige.

It is an uncertain time to be a Hollywood film star - Marshall notes that as film loses its hegemonic cultural position there is a concomitant diminishment of the significance of its stars.

He may have suffered more than most stars from 42 the user-driven product that the internet has enabled: doctored footage of his appearance on the Oprah Winfrey Show was uploaded to YouTube, as were clips from the Matt Lauer Show in which Cruise debated the merits of anti-depressants with his host.

The footage had been filmed in and was already familiar to journalistic and anti-Scientology circles. The impact of previously aired footage has the potential to alter with its recirculation on-line.

In this case, the clips were circulated on YouTube and reached a much larger audience. In such instances, the original producers and performers have little control over their later manifestations though footage may be removed from a site such as YouTube in cases of copyright infringement.

Yet each permutation filters into the persona. Entry No. Another possibility is that financial failure has resulted from the nature of the projects that Cruise has chosen to star in.

These films may not facilitate the vulnerable persona demonstrated in films such as Jerry Maguire and Magnolia and proved so popular with audiences.

Knight exhibits the mania typical of the Cruise persona without displaying the vulnerability underlying it. The resulting character is inexplicable and even disturbing.

He also suggests that such films might better reflect the depressed mood and resignation of the American public in what is predicted to be the longest recession since World War II2.

Montgomery Clift, a star to whom ready comparisons can be drawn with Cruise, was already dead. Bogart and Cooper are more adult than Cruise, who as Thomson points out, was in set to appear in the action film Mission: Impossible IV.

Cruise plays a boyish man struggling in an adult world, a position that is becoming untenable. Cruise is the white-collar working man, upwardly aspiring to the middle class and indulging in conspicuous consumption.

He also presents a solution to psychodynamic dilemmas. For this reason a psychodynamic methodology has been employed in this study of his persona.

His persona is that of a young man on the cusp of adulthood. He acts as if masculinity has already been achieved, but this remains role-play, a trying on of parts; he is often a trainee in the world he inhabits, never at the top of his field.

He sends out conflicting signals: he challenges authority but does not overthrow it. He rebels but does not lead.

He mixes with men but often seems uneasy in their company. He is poised between childhood carelessness and adult responsibility.

He is pretty feminine yet physically active masculine , often depicted running and climbing, yet rarely aggressive.

When he is aggressive, it comes out in a rage against the father, a moment of suppressed anger unleashed. At times his actions endanger women, and his films feature abused women.

This repeated plotting suggests an unconscious misogyny on the part of the Cruise persona in these films. Quite the opposite, it is Cruise who usually inhabits this exhibitionist space and solicits the male gaze himself.

I will show in the final section of the thesis that this auto-erotic presentation lends itself to a psychodynamic interpretation.

I engage with a classical Freudian and Kleinian conceptualisation of infant and child development in order to understand the figuration of Cruise in this way.

In addition, Cruise often plays a supplicant role with older men. He is frequently the victim of a scrutinising, sadistic communal male gaze, and though he appears to evade physical dispute with other men, the threat of violence or mistreatment is never far away.

Psychodynamically, this can be understood as an expression of the castration anxiety that the young boy feels towards his father, in fear of retaliation for his wish to kill the patriarch and take possession of his mother.

This physical threat becomes more overt as he ages, indicating a change to his aging persona, with films such as Minority Report, Mission: Impossible III J.

He typically attempts to talk his way out of conflict, and failing that, he tries to flee; he evades conflict with the father figure.

His aggression emerges under stress as a loss of control and undirected violence. Cruise does not wish to rebel against the system, but to be accepted into it.

He never becomes his own lawmaker but accepts in the end conventional authority, albeit now reformed, as seen in Minority Report. However, this is never through his bravery or combat.

He wins by luck, cunning, female assistance, running away and acrobatic exhibitionism. It also points to an estranged relationship with his father.

Unfortunately, he tripped and sprained his ankle. No longer able to perform in school sports at a competitive level due to the injury, he found acting to be a worthy substitute.

A scene opens with his character Billy playing football. Abandoning the game he joins his friends at the side of the pitch where he peels off his vest and lies back in the grass.

It was the first film in which Cruise had a significant role. TAPS exploited the on-screen intensity that, according to one East Coast producer early in his career, made Cruise unsuitable for television Johnstone, , p.

He plays the trigger-happy cadet David Shawn who, along with his fellow students, takes over his military school to prevent its imminent closure.

The film provides, while critiquing, a presentation of young men playing at being soldiers; it is a game that Shawn takes more seriously than the others.

Under siege by the local National Guard, his peers are on the point of surrender. Refusing to admit defeat, he starts spraying the enemy with bullets, grinning like a maniac, moments before he is killed in a hail of bullets.

At this moment, P. It defines his boyish cockiness and is part of a manic defence concealing the vulnerability beneath its surface. A s period teen road trip film, Cruise plays one of four teenage boys travelling to Tijuana with the goal of losing their virginity.

All the Right Moves features Cruise as teenager Stefen, who wants to break away from his familial tradition of working in the local steel works, and earn a college football scholarship.

The narrative centres round a fall-out with his football coach and how this threatens his chances of college.

Although the blue- collar Pennsylvania background does not fit the later Cruise image, nevertheless, the aspirations of the young Stefen and the utilization of his skills of performance to succeed anticipate the persona.

So does the conflict with the football coach, who in his domineering punishment of Stefen anticipates the later father figures who torment Cruise.

Two of the greasers, Ponyboy C. Although the film cast Cruise as a poor boy from the wrong side of town, which is at odds with the later white collar progression of his persona, it nevertheless exhibits familiar elements of his later films: masculine brutalization though taken out 49 against Ponyboy rather than him , victimisation and power displays.

It was not an obvious casting choice. Cruise ultimately won the role in a film that took 10th place at the American box office in It cemented key aspects of the persona, making him much more than the grinning, maniacal boy of TAPS.

He is childish looking but the sunglasses indicate selfconscious image promotion and the cigarette suggests an adult posturing.

It is representative of the bravado demonstrated in his early roles, a defence against the vulnerability he so wishes to hide.

It also establishes sunglasses as a recurring prop used by Cruise and linked to his self-presentation. The Ray-Bans Cruise wears in Risky Business reappear in a number of his films, identifying his persona with the brand, such as the use of the Wayfarer model in Risky Business and the Aviator model in Top Gun.

This type of consumption may indicate more consumer choice but less political influence, especially for the working classes of America.

Cruise likes to look good, spend money on his appearance, and is aspirational in outlook. This narcissism is also symptomatic of powerlessness.

As well as a signifier of vanity, sunglasses are a marker of stardom, a conspicuous attempt to go incognito.

Such narcissism is also writ over the eroticized body of the young Cruise, beginning with his cameo as Billy in Endless Love and reaching its peak as Maverick in Top Gun lunging for a volley ball.

Cruise spends these early films in a state of partial undress, more or less dictated by the narrative. TAPS depicts Shawn lifting weights, muscles bulging, while other cadets rest in their rooms.

All the Right Moves Michael Chapman, opens with Cruise as the sleeping Stefen, who staggers out of bed wearing black boxers and a gold crucifix , the puppy fat of Risky Business now shed to reveal a muscled torso.

A later locker room scene reveals Stefen and a number of semi-clad football players grinding their hips alongside their team mates.

The dance sequence in this film presents an exhibitionist Cruise enjoying himself in front of an imaginary crowd.

The arched doorway of the suburban living room frames the hall and stairs: he slides into view, wearing only a shirt, socks and white boxer shorts.

As both Jack and the Princess Lily Mia Sara are very young, their romance is portrayed as chaste, driving the quest rather than providing an erotic subplot.

Challenged to recover her ring from a pool with the promise that she will grant her hand in marriage if he succeeds, he returns to the surface of the water to discover that the Lord of Darkness has kidnapped her.

Thus the challenge of the fairytale quest is set with little emphasis on a physical relationship between the pair. Top Gun and Stardom Less than a month after Legend was released on American screens came the film that helped determine Cruise as a star.

Top Gun is still the film that audiences most associate with Cruise. The homoerotic male display, which characterises the film, is responsible for defining the persona.

Ray-Bans, now in the Aviator style, are worn by Cruise riding a motorbike: the ultimate in consumer desirability.

Such boyish attributes are exaggerated by 5ft 6in Cruise being cast against 6-ft plus co-stars, who tower over him. His love interest Charlie, possessing a gender-ambiguous name, is older, more senior, better educated she holds a PhD , and taller than Maverick, adding to her maternal figuring.

Although many film stars past and present have been of a similar height from Alan Ladd through Paul Newman, Robert Redford and Mel Gibson few have been targeted in the same manner as Cruise.

This concern with appearances is consistent with male adolescents unable to effect real change; although the pilots fly military planes, they attend a training school and are not engaged in real life combat.

Yet this acceptance by the father does not negate the fact that Cruise has spent the course of the film playing at being a naval aviator, donning the part along with the uniform.

It indicates childishness, with his uniforms often appearing too neat to be used as work wear. Such clothing appears as pretend masculine dress: it is Tom Cruise dressing up as a soldier, an aviator, a racing driver, a samurai, in order to achieve a feminine aim - to be looked at.

It is! That is what Top Gun is about, man. The second is the marginal place assigned to the female lead in relation to Cruise.

Even when he stars with his wife Nicole Kidman in Days of Thunder Tony Scott, and Far and Away, as well as the later Eyes Wide Shut, their romantic pairing is less charged than his close male relationships.

When Cruise divorced his second wife Nicole Kidman in various publications speculated that his sexuality had caused the split.

Chad Slater, formerly an actor in pornographic films, denied that he had ever told the French magazine Acustar about an alleged relationship with Cruise, said to have caused his marital split.

Caleb The purpose of the banking union is to recreate one lending market throughout the Eurozone, but that will not be the result of the agreement currently taking shape.

The rich countries are not sharing their financial muscle with the periphery, and as long as this is the case depositors will rightly believe that a euro in Finland, Austria, the Netherlands and Germany is safe than a euro in Italy and move their money accordingly.

Eusebio Could I order a new chequebook, please? Ryan Casey Oswaldo His contract is up at the end of the season.

Given his outstanding performances for the Lions, there will no doubt be lucrative offers from France. Delmar Do you like it here? Milliner was ruled out for Sunday after missing practice Friday.

Russel Can I take your number? Robbie He popped out to right with runners on second and third to end the fifth and he was caught looking on a slider by reliever Bruce Rondon leading off the eighth.

Gabriel A generation that has a different balance point between transparency and secrecy than our generations have had. A huge DC tanker, capable of carrying 12, gallons of retardant, was among aircraft making drops on the blaze.

Jordon Quinton Of the times the FBI has investigated itself for wrongful shootings, they have acquitted themselves times.

Roger Mary Schapiro, whoheaded the U. Ronnie And that sometimes, being persistent really pays off. Lamar Lorenzo The astonishing light-gathering capabilities of this new telescope could also help astronomers to unravel other complexities of the universe, and even provide new data pertaining to the Big Bang Theory, as well as our own origins.

Ashton The weather is terrible, which is good news for them, until one blows inside out: the ultimate umbrella faux pas.

Fernando Wilber Lindsey Its Multi-StrategyFund has lost 8. Rudolf They agree, and we almost kiss the registrar.

Raleigh Smart Kid. Josue On Monday, Belichick changed his tune. Bennie Could you tell me the number for? Another 5, women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone and about an equal number had placebo.

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In bail-ins, some of the debt owed to creditors, including bondholders, is written off. Billy Blaine Devon Federal employees, contractors, program beneficiaries, businesses and state and local governments would find themselves suddenly short of expected cash, causing a ripple effect through the economy," said Marron, who is now director of economic policy initiatives at the Urban Institute.

Randy How much will it cost to send this letter to? I got the fat part of the bat on it and got it when I hit it. It was nice. Ernie Davis Omar Infante flied out to shallow center for the first out, leaving the sacks full of Tigers.

He also supposedly thinks his execution is part of a satanic human sacrifice. Stewart They include breeding,raising and selling dairy cattle, production, processing andselling of raw milk, production of processed milk under originalequipment manufacturers contracts for other processors and saleof fertilizers.

Elizabeth Israelis who cannot countenance surrendering part or all of the West Bank and Gaza will fight, with words and perhaps guns.

Abram Leonardo AIG finished paying back thosefunds early this year. Brenton Kelly Antoine Tampa Bay left-hander David Price, who has gone five starts without a victory, allowed two runs and nine hits in five-plus innings.

Emery Peyton Those rules prevent company executives from making public statements related to information in the filing.

Hilario Claudio In terms of waxy regenerations, however, she has a way to go to beat the Queen, who has been replaced 23 times in London.

Salvador The situation is similar toSpain, where tariff deficits have forced debt onto the books ofprivate utilities like Iberdrola.

Lily Chesapeake is the second-largest U. Elliot Independent truckers with their trailers will drive around I, the D.

Paige The PS3 also evolved rapidly, but not as seismically and you can bet that the folks at Redmond are already beavering away on the next big peripheral.

Sterling Rumors suggested a blue version of the handset for Verizon, but the sign-up page makes no mention of that.

It also makes no mention of an actual release date. Dusty A second man not included in the original list of 20 but later added to it has also been caught in the last 12 months, the department says.

Simon Cyrus Did you go to university? Ricky His partner, year-old Rachel Dougall, received a one-year sentence in March, but was released in May after already serving eight months while awaiting trial.

The bi-annual Nato exercises were cancelled in as changes in the former Eastern Bloc made the situation increasingly unrealistic.

Abraham Randall Lamont Lesley Aaliyah Many in those towns heeded the advice as the exodus heading south on Highway 75 continued to slow traffic through the valley.

Virgil And starting on Monday they play each other for four games, which means the Yankees can gain ground on somebody every day if they win.

Katelyn How long have you lived here? A judge threw out those charges. Johnson returned to a second grand jury with a fuller presentation and was rebuffed.

Antony How many would you like? But now we are seeing a lot more independent travellers. That includes restrictions on the transfer of spectrumand limits on how much spectrum the three dominant carriers canbuy in an upcoming auction.

Alvin Mohammed Royce Olivia Brennan now serves as director of the Central Intelligence Agency and unnamed White House officials vehemently denied to Reuters he improperly disclosed classified information.

Travis is still in critical condition, but doctors said Tuesday that the year-old counry icon, was beeing weaned off a ventilator.

We never had any proof until now. Domestic acquisitions and private equity involvement are also rare, giving first-generation owners fewer exit options.

Shayne Mathew How do you know each other? Preston Andrade and Roma ensemble Via Romen will perform at a Sunday brunch.

Fidel Oscar What sort of music do you listen to? Naturally, he was talking not about Neymar but Messi, the commander-in-chief of the Nou Camp.

More than others were rescued. Darell Edmund Janni Businesses and schools could be fined up to , roubles.

Earnest Simon never knew who Mr. Rudi was," Girsang said. Because Mr. Katherine Dalton The brokenpromises are many," said Representative Fred Upton, the MichiganRepublican who chairs the committee.

Kidrock But the surprise package is Jazz Carlin. Luis The move provoked mass protests and crippling strikes in the prosperous coastal rump of the state this month.

Vaughn Blame for Republicans grew to 30 percentfrom 26 percent, with the level of blame for Obama and Democratsat 19 percent, up from 18 percent.

Mervin Labour has not made an official complaint. Manual Edgar Sheldon Mohamed That technology is considered dual use because governments in countries, including Libya and Iran, have bought deep-packet inspection gear from global firms to build surveillance networks.

Hyman Crew members whointentionally deviate from procedures made three times moreerrors, the NTSB found. Judson Those two are effectively locked into a three-horse race for Player of the Year honors with Tiger Woods, who has won a season-high five times without claiming a major title.

Sidney Merlin Edmundo Ezequiel Ahmed Clint Apple has set a high bar for aesthetics, simplicity and ease of use that other tech brands have to match, and Apple itself will have to continually exceed, the report said.

Wilfred Stanford This will inevitably mean there will be more cyclists on the roads. Alfonso Another service?

Salvatore Jane Ivory Sarah Louis Kraig Goodsam More than 10, active TMS treatments have been performed with no reported systemic side effects commonly associated with antidepressant medications, according to a study in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

The most common side effect is scalp pain or discomfort, generally mild to moderate. Kristopher Could you tell me my balance, please?

Fortescue Metals Group rose 0. Randell But the court system has said it will have to reassess its ability to stay open on or about Oct.

Cristobal Department of Agriculture data. Wilfredo Winford Jones, who has been flipping homes for five years, said the competition is really heating up.

Connor How long are you planning to stay here? Spain has also takenEuropean money to rescue its banks. Erich He declined to be named because he wasnot authorised to talk about the topic.

In a brief letter to Carper on Wednesday, White House Counsel Kathryn Ruemmler assured that the nominee underwent a "thorough" FBI background check before the nomination and "we have no concerns about his suitability for this important position.

Chance Duane It seems that it is far more exciting to see year-on-year increases and claims that exams are getting easier. Alexandra What company are you calling from?

Isaiah The firm hopes to manage theassets more aggressively than they have in the past, containcosts and work to extend reserve life, the person said.

Their plan for more borrowing and more debt - exactly the same old Labour policy that got us into this mess in the first place - would mean soaring mortgage rates and higher bills.

Irwin Gonzalo Not only do you have a certain amount of protection but receiving a statement each month is useful when controlling your finances.

I keep saying I should get an Amex card to build up air miles, especially as I travel a lot for business. Faustino What sort of work do you do?

Disney also built two full-sized western towns, using 15 different filming locations from Utah to New Mexico to Colorado. Hell on Wheels, which only appears for a few seconds in the movie, is just an afterthought in comparison.

Marquis They are also analyzing tissue from the dolphins to look for viruses and biotoxins. Ervin However, his strategy is starting to backfire.

Bob They were victims of a high-pressure bait and switch. Eugene If you did that, what would it look like? Denver Carmine Guadalupe Quinn Reggie Birdwatchers will want to visit the eco-attraction of Zealandia; stargazers the Carter Observatory.

Clinton We were worried. Aidan Could you tell me the dialing code for? The government willguarantee it a price of up to The RBI is likely to raise the benchmark another 50basis points by the end of this year.

Moshe Through basketball and education, he helped countless people around the country receive scholarships, high school and college admissions and even employment.

Alfredo Brooke Bernardo Connie Edwin But at this point it seems unlikely that Rodriguez will ever step foot on a major league diamond again.

Booker Chloe Could I have a statement, please? How many more years do you have to go? Lincoln Hassan Numbers Do you know each other?

Cyril Houston Galen Erwin Logan That rate of store openings and closings is consistent with what the company has done in recent years, says CFO Michael Huseby, and does not reflect that the company is shifting its focus away from brick-and-mortar retail.

Garfield I think people would be shocked at just how much they creep me out. Mitch Is it possible it could be the rest of the year?

Everyone has tried and few have been successful. Justin is one of them. He is moving very fast, but this is the next logical step.

Royal Gobiz When can you start? Genaro Do you have any exams coming up? At the Oxford Playhouse, he directed a production of The Tempest which led to his being hired by the Royal Court as an assistant director.

Enrique Tyrone Johnson New Zealand were beaten in the semi-final. England had a succession of near misses, notably losing to New Zealand in the final in Italy, with a side including Owen Farrell, Mako Vunipola and Joe Launchbury.

Claude As soon as you go back into the sun or get a bit of a tan, all pigmentation will come back. You can reduce it but it can easily return.

Garry The rest is locked as partof an agreement that allows Fiat to exercise options togradually buy portions of the VEBA holding.

Darwin Aubrey Those brought to the caves and executed were described as prisoners for petty offences or anti-fascism, including many Jews.

Nicholas Joesph Steve Nestor He suggested the skills and planning required for such a job may have come from abroad.

Buford Could I have , please? A state that wishes to treat citizens of all races and nationalities equally is free as a matter of its own law to do so.

Keneth How much notice do you have to give? As the tense journey reaches ice-covered Europa, disaster and fear bedevil the mission.

Friend35 Could I borrow your phone, please? Emory Stevie He also struggled with alcohol abuse. They finally arrived 26 minutes after the call for assistance was connected.

Wilmer Erick And when they emerged back into civilization just 16 days later, they had a movie. Mornhinweg dialed up 17 plays in that span, including five rushes, without turning to him.

The anonymizing service itself appears to have foxed US and UK government snoops, but instead they are using a zero-day flaw in the Firefox browser bundled with Tor to track users.

Rupert Fresh Market, a North Carolina chain that operates a store in Roseville, just reported a 17 percent jump in second-quarter profits.

Phoenix-based Sprouts, which has four stores in the region, recently completed an initial public stock offering and reported a doubling of second-quarter profits.

Sandy Trenton Garland Mr ElBaradei is a liberal politician who was once the head of the UN nuclear agency. What do you do? Dexter Terry Five years later he retired for good and moved from Wisconsin, where he had been running a university police science course, back to Gadsden, Alabama, the town of his birth.

Leopoldo Friday after calls about a woman who fell from a car while riding a roller coaster. She was pronounced dead at the scene.

Most economists expect growth to accelerate in the second half. Marvin But what do they do? How do they handle this in the United States?

Are they ready for an attack like this in the United States? Twenty-three ofthese cycles resulted in a viable embryo, and of these, seven women becamepregnant.

So far, 12 healthy babies have been born. Cover and cook for 7 to 8 minutes, stirring occasionally. Tyrell Deangelo Jonah Lazaro What line of work are you in?

A City Council committee is expected to discuss the contract next week. Where do you study? It has been debated in the Senate since the s.

In , a showdown between Republicans produced a compromise that lowered the filibuster threshold from two-thirds, or 67 senators, to three-fifths and 60 senators.

What part of do you come from? Have you got any experience? With only three challenger teams rather than the 12 to 15 once anticipated, the summer-long preliminary matches were interesting mainly for the wrong reasons - including a fatal accident and a cheating scandal - and crowds were far smaller than expected.

Until the dramatic finale, local merchants complained that they hadn't seen much additional business. Where do you come from?

A animal that is more pet than food animal in the USA A animal that has toxic drugs given to them and are not safe to feed to our pets let along our self.

But thanks to Sue Wallis and many others we may soon find this toxic horse meat mixed into our beef. I would rather pay my tax dollars to recuse animals like this than to see them go to slaughter like our horses.

Another service? Spectators are issued with coloured flags to denote the teams they are in. When it comes to the pastoral sequence in the second half, they are then asked to perform different dance moves to accompany a shear-a-sheep competition.

Constitution'sCommerce Clause by requiring more favorable rates for in-staterather than out-of-state utilities. Whereabouts are you from?

Senior Open at , three better than the old mark, and tied records for lowest hole total, lowest score for the last 54 holes , and the lowest final-round score.

His research colleagues determined that Streptomyces bacteria that are found in the nests and feed on fecal matter may be producing beneficial antimicrobial compounds that protect the termites from other potentially toxic matter.

Why was that the most important issue? It's bettertoday than it was yesterday and it will keep getting better,"U. Have you got any?

What do you say for a harmonious, sounds like one of those Chinese fireworks, a harmonious dove or something like that? A pair of harmonious doves.

What is that in Chinese? The Nasdaq Composite Index was down The Associated Press file photo. He does look to have something, a burst of acceleration and some natural talent.

I think you might have nailed the solution with Mexico. No doubt about it, though - one to watch, and Bolivia badly need someone like him to come through.

How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? If you are guilty , suspend them. Could you ask her to call me? Have you got a current driving licence?

What do you study? Plus details on the contracts for Raask and Bergeron and a look inside the abrupt end of the season for the B's.

Could you please repeat that? Totalupstream production increased 8 percent to , barrels ofoil equivalent per day. Tesla says Texas has the most restrictive auto dealer laws.

It's like God said, 'Yo, we need you on earth a little longer! I would have a Zevia IV if I could.

Recruiters want you to do well and they want to close out their requisitions sooner rather than later, but if you commit certain faux pas, they could end up costing you.

Don't be that guy or gal, OK? That means the fundraising could get pushed into next year. Would you like to leave a message? I was heartbroken.

And, a few years later, my mom disclosed that telling me no to my undergrad dream was one of the hardest things she had done as a mother.

From legendary boxers and iconic tennis players to golfing greats and fabled Olympians, the Daily News has the photos you want of the once-in-a-lifetime sports moments.

Find yours today and relive history. How many would you like? My son wanted to break it up. Where did you go to university? On Thursday organizers changed course, recognizing that the mud and rain could cause health problems and even accidents for the legions that would have to travel there.

Then she got a job as a reporter with the Irish News and two years later became their chief reporter. Could I take your name and number, please?

About 30 percent of students are "Greek," and there are about student organizations. Labor Department said on Thursday.

The figure suggested a moderate pace of job growth remains in place, which might be enough to allow the U. Could you send me an application form?

Every bounce, every tipped ball, everything. Peterson did add another rushing score and a 4-yard TD reception.

Whereabouts in are you from? I have more friends in the mids bracket who are childless, not I hope through dwindling fertility levels, but because they haven't met their Prince Charming yet.

Can you really have the right baby with the wrong man? Surely pressure on women to have babies earlier coerces us to settle sooner and get divorced younger.

Crazy, I know. Visa also raised its outlook for full-year revenue andearnings. The SGX declined to give any immediate commentbeyond its statement that trading had been temporarily suspended"as there could be circumstances that would result in the marketnot being fully informed.

How do you spell that? The replays showed that in fact Rice, who had to go behind the mound to get the ball, had beaten Freeman with the throw to Josh Satin.

Had the marriage taken place it would have seen a year-old given off to a year-old man who is old enough to be her grandfather. Which team do you support?

As I noted earlier, the model drove a substantial increase in circulation revenues again this quarter as it continued to garner customer attention in our local publishing markets.

Given we are now through the first anniversary of the launch in many of our publishing sites, we have already begun the relaunch of our local digital platforms, starting with the debut of a new iPad app for the Democrat and Chronicle in Rochester in order to ensure that our customers are continuing to get fresh, relevant content on the most convenient platforms they choose.

The relaunch of our mobile and desktop products will continue to improve the user experience and create higher-value advertising opportunities for our clients with even greater scale.

We expect the relaunch of our top 35 markets to be largely completed by year's end. In the video it claimed this was its second such operation and there would be more.

When considering factors that are very or extremely important in their retirement decisions, 78 percent cited financial needs, 75 percent said health, 68 percent their ability to do their job and 67 percent said their need for employer benefits such as health insurance.

We have participated in some of the greatest games in NFL history, and have won five World Championships.

We are proud of our team and the passion of our loyal fans. He said: "I will wait and see what the Orange Order has to say on the matter.

All violence is wrong and it has to be condemned. The Orange Order clearly called for a peaceful protest. Spotcycle, for iPhone, Blackberry andAndroid phones, aggregates listings from bike sharing servicesacross the world.

Vander Tuig struck out six and walked one. David Berg pitched the ninth. We have six security forces dead and four wounded and one gunman dead," Mohammed Ali Aroui, spokesman for the interior ministry, told state television.

The drug candidate is a unique combination in the respiratory space because it combines both a long-acting muscarinic antagonist and a long-acting beta agonist.

Will I have to work shifts? These cookies store no personally identifiable information. Did you go to university? Pierce said this was a factor in his off-season move.

Sean and Max discuss the future of the Celtics with and without Rondo on this second hour of Celtics' Cooler.

How much notice do you have to give? Majidyar is a senior research associate at the American Enterprise Institute studying political and security affairs in South Asia and the Middle East, with a special focus on Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.

How much were you paid in your last job? Exercise during pregnancy can ease aches and pains, boost energy, help prepare the body for childbirth, and make recovery easier," says Murray.

Where's the nearest cash machine? Can you put it on the scales, please? Can you hear me OK? Competition in the UK is very fierce and there are overseas markets which will really want your brand and be happy to pay more for it.

If your brand is good you can make very good profitable sales and you can also get the cash up front, at least for the early orders.

This is great news for cash flow reasons and can be very useful. Boy or girl, the child will titled the Prince or Princess of Cambridge and the prospective future monarch.

Do you know the number for? Will I have to work on Saturdays? What sort of music do you listen to? Only one in seven said they had been called an offensive name or were publicly snubbed because of their religion in the last year.

About 40 percent believe Jews still face significant discrimination in the U. But they say they face significantly less discrimination than other minority groups, including U.

Muslims, gays and lesbians, and African-Americans. John Mizuno, who had unsuccessfully tried to get a similar plan through the past three legislative sessions.

This year, the measure was attached to a larger spending bill and squeaked through the state legislature. What's the exchange rate for euros?

Can I take your number? When it comes to buying expensive items likecars, anti-Japanese sentiment won't play a big role,' she said.

Cucchiani himself has often said thebank's appeal is that it is "boring". Have you got any qualifications?

John's should have all the pieces. D'Angelo Harrison spent two seasons as the go-to scorer and no longer has to find all his own shots.

Greene is a tenacious competitor. All are juniors and between them have started a combined games, meaning they're not about see anything they've not seen.

It was NOT his job to spark a public debate about U. The others had been there for a shorter but as-yet undetermined period. How would you like the money?

However, Chinese refiners stillcannot fully pass on higher crude costs to consumers because thegovernment controls oil prices to help curb inflation.

So it would be unrealistic for them to commit now to an exact profile for policy in the future," he added. Which year are you in? The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, a liberal think tank, estimates that by next January , fewer families will receive housing help.

Newspapers are therefore of greateconomic significance, not to mention their importance todemocracy. The move followed the popularly-backed coup that ousted Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi, from the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood group, a parent organization of Hamas.

Do you know what extension he's on? Witnesses said the car had stopped in the middle of the road, and the bus was unable to brake.

It's a golf course he can't play. Who would I report to? Hang on - what is P Diddy, multi-millionaire rapper and businessman doing co-hosting some rubbish chat show with a Kardashian?

Yet they are notorious for skirting reporting requirements when they part ways with a physician. How many weeks' holiday a year are there?

It is also taking on extra costs from the government includingfunding the BBC World Service, which is broadcast overseas. When researchers first documented the genus back in the early s, locals immediately recognized the furry shrew.

Better still, drop by on a Tuesday, when a free taco comes if you buy two regular tacos. But with the number of accidents in this country spiking in the last quarter of and the start of , senior officials of that voluntary effort told industry gatherings earlier this year that the latest global and U.

Now, the selling price is too high. Buyers will also have to pay upfront for a handset. Reich and director Jacob Kornbluth cover an astounding amount of ground.

Starting with the expected rundown of troubling facts and figures, the film expands outward to an array of hot topics that many audiences may not see coming: the decline of unions, the rise of women in the workforce, campaign finance, K Street lobbyists, falling income tax rates, the Occupy and Tea Party movements, and where iPhone parts are manufactured, to name a few.

How many are there in a book? Third-tier is more like it. Or below-deck, since this singing catalogue of cliches by a team of Broadway rookies would fit better on a cruise ship than the Great White Way.

Anacquirer can go on to operate in Canada and increase revenuebeyond that 10 percent mark, as long as it does so organically.

Could you tell me my balance, please? Travel restrictions to Cuba have been in place since the s because of the country's communist government.

The development of other motorwayshas also been delayed, resulting in tens of millions of poundsof extra costs. Is it convenient to talk at the moment?

One is much more glorious than the other. Both have tremendous potential. While customers may be alarmed as is natural in these circumstances, Lakeland should work with the authorities to identify what information was leaked.

Customers should have the right to know if their credit card numbers were stolen. Lakeland and others should take note that being proactive instead of reactive is the best approach, because brand reputation is priceless.

They will have 10 days off before playing the Bills at home. That seems like a soft landing spot for Smith: Jets Nation ready to embrace him, inferior opponent, 10 days to prepare.

Could you give me some smaller notes? Now, their "rates are essentiallythe same" at nearly 36 percent, they said. Is there? Who do you work for?

He began the week not quite trusting his footwork, but he said he has now completely regained his confidence.

The year home loan rate is now at its highest level since at least , according to the Mortgage Bankers Association.

With rising rates, applications to refinance mortgages fell in early September to their lowest levels since November How sweaty was it?

Would you have minded if the musicians didn't wear full concert dress..? Adding in cumulative consumer price inflation over the same period takes the decline close to 40 percent.

They claimed you would be able to keep your current insurance or get on the Market. I found out this past week that because I have insurance through work, I cannot get on the Market- even though I would qualify for maximum discounts.

This Act is just a great big scam to make the Federal Government and Insurance Companies alot more money, at the expence of the working poor.

In the days to come, engineers will perform computer scans and other inspections to scrutinize the component more closely.

Government PC and equipment contracts are hard for any newish firm such as Lenovo to crack and change happens very slowly.

The Department of Defense is reviewing submissions from the three service academies detailing how each would be able to support athletics without federal funds during the government shutdown, a Pentagon spokesman said Wednesday morning.

I was too exhausted to think about much. That Sunday, I decided to rest in town and do laundry before leaving.

Police officers and firefighters do not pay into Social Security, so if the city seizes their pensions in bankruptcy, many say they'd be left with little money for retirement.

Europe plays for its tour in the Ryder Cup. The International team plays under a manufactured flag. Most of the players already are PGA Tour members, and in many cases live in the same neighborhood as the U.

In general, though this depends on the specific weight-loss surgery, a candidate would need a body mass index, a measurement based on height and weight, of That would translate to pounds for someone who is 6 feet tall, and pounds for someone who is 5-foot-2, Garber says.

He posited that Apple has an obligation to protect its users, and at a minimum to give them written warnings about Internet porn.

So why get into the news business now? The figure is more than double thebank's 2. Nottinghamshire Police said houses in Southwell were particularly badly hit by the extreme weather.

Silverman bears a They said the case went to court because of a public outcry over Yu's death as well as the family's doggedness in seeking justice.

How much does the job pay? Coast Guard and the New York police and fire departments. If those people who have simply dropped out of the labour force were classified as unemployed, the headline jobless rate would be much higher.

If we don't do anything, meat will become a luxury food and be very, very expensive. If Democrats vote against thatbill, Republicans are likely to accuse them of hurting U.

This means I have to respond to the first office response, appeal to a higher board or file a continuation, all of this resulting in higher IP development cost and delays.

Most of my IP is in solar, the average time to get a response from an examiner is 3. My latest patent was filed in and issued at the beginning of The crisis in Washington threatens to damage the credit standing of the United States and to derail the nation's fragileeconomic recovery.

The difference was equivalent to about one pound. Western diplomats have expressed concern about postponing negotiations for the next government to deal with.

Yes, shale production has allowed America to build up a large stockpile, so keeping local prices below those on world markets.

Yet, for all the triumphalism, the amounts produced have been pretty tiny in the global context. Centre-right leader SilvioBerlusconi effectively brought down the government of PrimeMinister Enrico Letta by pulling his ministers out of thecabinet on Saturday, further delaying agreement on changesintended to reduce debt and revive growth.

In that research, Ashwell led a team of investigators who looked at 31 studies, finding that waist-to-height ratio predicted diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, cancers, stroke and respiratory problems better than BMI.

The birds are chirping, buds are appearing and here at www. Candyce Abbatt writes about all things florid in "Five Point Five," a reference to the planting zone Dearborn sits in.

There are budget-friendly planting tips, inspired design ideas, and some irreverent commentary along the way.

An attorney, Abbatt says she "supports her gardening habit by practicing family law. Of course, Alain Chapel, who was aconsulting chef at the restaurant I was working in It isexpected to buy shares itself or lend money to the KruppFoundation to preserve the blocking minority.

But first,Hiesinger must seal the Steel Americas deal. But soon after the violence, authorities built massive, concrete-block walls to secure roads leading to the compound and boosted other security measures.

All this does is shift profits from Oil companies to large Ag companies and drives up the price of food for everyone. It is where the International Cricket Council held its annual conference a few weeks ago, and where it decided to award the World Cup to the great nation of India.

Doctors thought Small had eaten tainted fish. First exit polls are due at 6p. A regional security official said: " The battle for Qusair was basically a Hezbollah operation, from the planning to the handling of key weapon systems.

It is our understanding the Hezbollah crews were even operating Syrian T and T tanks there, as well as all significant artillery systems, anti-tank missiles and so on.

For the avoidance of doubt, neither the content of the websites referred to above nor any other website nor the contents of any website accessible from hyperlinks on any such website is incorporated into, or forms part of, this announcement.

It precisely marks the geographic spot where I return to myself on drives back from North Dakota.

So I would stop there and go through this routine after every trip to North Dakota: Check into a hotel or a sweet little vacation rental.

Bozeman feels like the best place I could possibly be on those nights, and I think I might have taken my last couple of work trips in part to enjoy its good company.

Still, profits have largelyrisen and many bellwether companies have topped expectations. Thursday, cops said. On Sunday, Smith hobbled around like a something weekend warrior.

On Monday, he looked slightly better. Although witnesses said that Smith appeared more fluid on Tuesday and Wednesday, Ryan's blunt assessment was a buzz kill for Geno supporters such as Idzik.

In recent years, Israel has identified East Africa as an area of strategic interest and stepped up ties with Kenya and other neighboring countries, due to shared threats posed by al-Qaida and other extremist elements.

In , militants bombed an Israeli-owned luxury hotel near Mombasa, killing 13 people, and tried to shoot down an Israeli airliner at the same time.

She said her dream was to see a real orca. Thankfully her dream was realized in October when she went to SeaWorld. Fidel Castro's brother Raul, who now leads the government, has recently explored new diplomatic entrees with Washington.

At the same time, he earlier this year assumed the rotating presidency of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States in what was a demonstration of regional unity against U.

Carney, are you now going to give up your privilege of exemptions? How many Delawareans do you think can afford the ACA? They have players from all over the world chasing their livelihoods.

Where better to get the 20, 30 or 40 players we need to fight with the best in the world at a national level? However, prominent legal scholars have spoken up in defense of Wu's right to free speech, urging the government to be more tolerant of speech that can serve as a release valve for the disgruntled.

You know your geographic performance looks fine. Thank you. The report said the nerve agent sarin was used in an Aug.

Lowe popped the question to the year-old in a romantic Thailand proposal that aired on the season finale on March 11, Giudici shared a black and white photo of her amazing rock the following day on Instagram.

These little street gardens burst with a passionate and exuberant love of plants. There is a lot that gardeners in other urban areas can learn from here.

The traditional gardens beloved by the intellectual visitor may be respected, but the Japanese, it seems, don't particularly want them for themselves.

It was also stated that without such sponsorship, organisations would find it extremely difficult to host major sports events in this country, from rugby to horse racing, which would, in turn, impact negatively on tourism revenue," the Committee noted.

It adds that such behaviour would be a clear breach of governance procedures, values and standards and "GSK has zero tolerance for any behaviour of this nature".

In Detroit's case, if we expect the people and businesses which make up its current tax base to continue paying out interest and benefits in exchange for very bad services, we are going to have to be prepared to build a wall to keep them in.

The agreement calls for completely eliminating its chemical weapons in less than a year. Sometimes the promotion is paid for, but the content they go to is always independent with no client oversight or approval.

Decisions should be based on what is most clinically appropriate for the patient. The measures are likely to be defeated in theDemocratic-controlled Senate, and Obama said he would veto themif they reached his desk.

Is this a temporary or permanent position? Democrats hold a slim majority in the Senate that may be at risk and are in the minority in the House of Representatives.

He threw for three touchdown passes after sitting out the first half under suspension. But after being flagged for a personal foul by officials, TAMU coach Kevin Sumlin benched him for the remainder of the contest.

Manziel and his teammates -- at least the ones who aren't also still suspended in what has been a tumultuous disciplinary start to the season for the Aggies -- face visiting Sam Houston State on Saturday.

That was interesting. Two Face was given a 50 percent chance of survival by a Charleston, West Virginia veterinarian. Oddly enough, this isn't the first two-faced feline Blatter has repeatedly refused to say if he backed Qatar, which can have temperatures of degrees during the summer.

The present adjectives are really getting threadbare, and more or less, pedestrian throwaways. Richard Phillips. But the official version that unfolded in the Indian Ocean wasn't as tidy as Hollywood's, or the versions in Phillips' own book or in contemporaneous news reports.

Understandably, Clarence House will not comment on such a private and delicate matter. A restraining order was issued in July to keep him away from his son as well as a court order stating the children are in danger of serious harm from their parents," the alert said.

You should also provide a description of any of the professor's research or writing that you have followed. Request to schedule an in-person meeting for when you arrive on campus, and attach your resume.

Supporters say those laws are key to preventing wealthy donors from exerting an undue and potentially corrupting influence on the political process, while opponents say the laws choke free speech.

Since April , Japan has increased its generation capacity from renewable sources by 15 percent to about 3.

Seriously, though, today we took advantage of a day off to soak up the spirituality of Dharamsala. We were mobbed so much that in the end we had to beat a retreat back to the team hotel.

While the pair had denied romance rumors that surfaced almost as soon as the show started airing in , they went public with their relationship in early Britain's financial watchdog is considering its owninvestigation of metals warehouses, sources said, and twolawmakers questioned whether power regulators were tough enough.

Because he is phlegmatic and plays the same way regardless of the score. He appears unaffected by pressure and has a soothing influence.

But there are one or two signs recently that his outward calmness disguises a slight anxiety to get at the ball early in his innings.

He is drawn to unwisely drive at fullish balls outside off stump when he first comes in and has at times tended to take a half step up the pitch as the bowler delivers.

Especially when they buy a bottle of wine, it's less clear how much each person consumes," she said. To be confronted with tulips in July would have been a real shock to her.

Called-out comments are highlighted across the Forbes network. You'll be notified if your comment is called out.

The Fairfax-led consortiumaims to take BlackBerry private and give it time to rebuild awayfrom Wall Street's gaze.

Everything he does will be scrutinized and it will be assumed that his intent is always dirty.

Make no mistake, Matthews did a cannonball into the dirty player pool, but nobody even noticed because big bad Suh was stomping through the NFL landscape.

NFL fans love to hate Suh and the networks know it. Lawmakers back then were fighting over how best to reduce trillion-dollar budget deficits, but this time they are at loggerheads over an issue that does not lend itself to compromise as easily: an expansion of government-supported health benefits to millions of uninsured Americans.

Or sign up as a digital-only subscriber today, and start enjoying all of our digital content, with unlimited access to JSOnline, e-Editions, Journal Sentinel mobile site and content previously included in Packer Insider.

Rooney looks lean and eager. But it was also a political statement. Chelsea will not be buying him, so the United No10 might as well get on with it, unless he wants to disgrace himself with moods and pouts.

Alejandro Garcia Padilla said Friday that Putnam Bridge Funding LLC also is considering adding more docks to expand the current capacity of 1, boats and allowing boats longer than feet 61 meters to dock there.

He said the company also has plans to build condo-hotels and villas. Are you going to remain silent until the genocide is completed?

Guests onboard were being kept apprised and the shipswere sailing at a safe and comfortable distance from the storm,the company said.

Within the consumer division, sales ofover-the-counter medicines rose 6. The balls can help improve posture and strengthen abs, legs and back muscles.

The three other children were taken to hospitals, where the 7-month-old and 4-year-old were later pronounced dead.

The surviving 5-year-old was in stable condition with bumps and bruises, police said. They identified the 7-month-old as Saamir Williams but did not immediately release the other boys' names.

Yet it is the culmination of a carefully planned process of deliberation on reforms. On the other, it is a relatively large amount of money to shell out at a time when the White House is being forced to cut back on many expenses.

Churches and groups have been asked to ring bells at 3 p. Wednesday, marking the exact time King spoke. A statement from the Kurdish asayesh security service said a bomber detonated explosives at the entrance to their headquarters in Arbil, the capital of the northern region.

Asayesh forces then clashed with four more bombers, killing them, before another detonated an explosives-rigged ambulance.

Kurdistan region health minister Raykot Hama Rashid told journalists that six asayesh members were killed and more than 60 people wounded in the attack.

It may be true, as Carragher cheekily suggested, that nobody wants to grow up to be a Gary Neville but uncharismatic though the former full-back is, he is rapidly becoming one of the most illuminating pundits around.

Debt financing allows borrowers such as Blackstone to buy more properties at lower costs. The sale of a Blackstone-backed securitization would bring still more money to the company.

While it could be useful for people driving, hands-free car systems are far more effective. Gulf of Mexico, a sign theworst of the storm had already passed deepwater areas of thebasin.

They had been evacuated earlier this week. Wanting information on his daughter, Keller kidnaps Alex, keeps him in an abandoned building and beats and tortures him.

The vicious behavior is not done without conscience, but, in a way, alongside it. This is the only way he knows how to save the children.

Lawmakers have questioned whether banks should own metals warehouses and power plants, while the U. Federal Reserve reviews a landmark decision that first let them trade commodities.

Pulled to an unprecedented 5. I know there are people who don't want to attend that anymore," said Joua Xiong, who attended Saturday's celebration along with hundreds of other Hmong people and heard the gunfire break out.

He returned downstairs to search some more, but he dragged the woman out when the flames became too strong. I hope that the images released today of a facial reconstruction and the man's clothing will jog someone's memory, and finally we may be able to find out who this man is and contact his family.

Colleagues describe him as a perfectionist with an obsessive eye for materials and hardware design. Staff would deliver trays of prototype phones for him to inspect and pore over, spinning them to check for balance and running his fingers across the bevelled edges and joints.

Phones would pile up on his desk, sometimes spilling onto the floor. I am willing to accept the consequences of those actions.

Because many Canadian companies areactive in Brazil's mining industry, the spying could be a clearcase of industrial espionage, Rousseff said.

Over 50 per cent think Scotland gets more than its fair share of public spending while 40 per cent think that England gets less than its fair share.

Operation WalkГјre Film Cast und Crew von "Die Operation"

I think it shows the environmental impact and they can help," said Ottauquechee School Principal Amos Kornfeld. Argentinien 2. Antonio Calloni. Biopic Mockumentary 1. With jochen rindt unfall consider The trees they are planting will help to stop further erosion. Link 7.